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l.georges onlinework ‘n’ shit
Une heure hebdomadaire:
Groupes 1,2 & 3 (Mme Mutin) et groupes 4,5 & 6 (Mme Georges) à 9h, 10h et 12h respectivement les lundi 21 et 28 novembre, le 5 décembre, 20 et 27 février, 6, 13, 20 et 27 mars, et le jeudi 18 mai. Le contrôle aura lieu le 29 mai.
Groupes 8, 9 & 10 (Mme Mutin) et groupes 7, 11 et 12 (Mme Georges) à 9h, 10h et 12h respectivement les mardi 22 et 29 novembre, le 6 décembre, 21 et 28 février, 7, 14, 21 et 28 mars, et le vendredi 19 mai. Le contrôle aura lieu le 30 mai.
Groupes 13 & 14 (Mme Georges) 13h et 14h respectivement les vendredi le 25 novembre, 2 & 9 décembre, 24 février, 3, 10, 17, 24 et 31 mars, 19mai. Le contrôle aura lieu le 2 juin.
Pour tout changement ponctuel, merci de bien vouloir contacter votre enseignant au préalable.
Is 100 days without meat good for our health?
Aline Perraudin, editor of “Santé Magazine” and author of “100 days without meat” set herself the challenge of eating no meat for 100 days. Even though the journalist made the choice for ethical reasons, because she could no longer stand the scandals over animal slaughter for example, is it possible that this decision was good for her health?
“Many studies have compared the health of vegetarians and meat-eaters,” GP Dr Martine Perez told Europe 1. “The results show that vegetarians generally have fewer cancers.” But these conclusions should be taken with precaution. First and foremost, because certain types of cancer, such as colon cancer are just as common in non meat-eaters as in others. Finally, the decrease in risk of cancer is not necessarily linked to dietary habits. “If vegetarians have fewer cancers, it is because over all they are health conscious,” Dr Perez stated. So, they have fewer lung cancers because they are less likely to smoke than the rest of the population.
Other studies have been carried out on cardiovascular diseases. Here again it is difficult to associate lower prevalence in vegetarians with diet. Dr Perez added that “vegetarians are also a little less frequently diabetic and less obese.” But an Austrian study has upset the cart, coming to the conclusion that vegetarians had more allergies than meat-eaters, and were more depressed. Aline Perraudin, for her part, believes that going meat-free has enabled her to eat a more balanced diet. “Initially, you feel like there are only side dishes left”, she told Europe 1. “At the end, I felt as though I was doing myself good. Eating a vegetable-based diet eased my conscience.” The journalist ate a more balanced diet, “tofu doesn’t need chips”. Indeed, besides meat, what people eat with it disrupts a balanced diet, and thus their health. “People who eat meat, eat more chips, and more fat, and drink more wine” concluded Dr Perez.
The question remains as to what (nutritional) deficiencies a vegetarian diet can cause. For nutritionist Jean-Michel Cohen it is nevertheless possible to compensate for the proteins, iron and vitamin B12 contained in meat. “We can get iron from chocolate, wholemeal bread or wheat bran.” Vitamin B12 on the other hand is difficult to find in other foods besides fish. If fish is also being avoided, taking dietary supplements is advised.
Vous présenterez un ‘case report’ récent, en anglais simplifié, devant l’ensemble de votre groupe. Vous disposerez de 4 minutes pour présenter le cas sans notes, et nous vous conseillons donc l’utilisation de diapositives.
Pour toute question n’hésitez pas à écrire à votre enseignante.
A Blood Test to Detect Cancer
It is a revolutionary discovery. French oncologist Patrizia Paterlini-Bréchot at the Necker Children’s University Teaching Hospital has developed a blood test which detects all cancers at an early stage.
French health minister Marisol Touraine regards this new test as the ‘promise of a major shift in cancer treatment because it is particularly simple to use, and therefore easy to implement on a larger scale’.
This technical feat, achieved by Patrizia Paterlini-Bréchot, a professor of cellular biology and oncologie at the Necker Children’s University Teaching Hospital (University of Paris-Descartes) consists in detecting the cancerous invasion at the very beginning of the disease. ‘Thanks to tests on animals, we knew that these (cancerous) cells are present in the blood for years before the appearance of metastases, and patients die because of these metastases, not because of the initial tumor. Just as the AIDS virus does, these cells mutate, and because of this have time to become more and more resistant,’ said the researcher.
After seven years of research, a large box has been produced in which the tests called ISET (Isolation by Size of Tumor cells) can be carried out. This test can detect the presence of these tumor cells which are larger than blood cells among the 5 billion red blood cells and 100 billion white blood cells in 10ml of blood.
The efficiency of the test has been proven by the results obtained at the university teaching hospital in Nice, where a cohort of at-risk patients (heavy smokers with pulmonary disease) was followed for 6 years. Thanks to the test, researchers detected tumor cells in the blood of five patients well before the lung cancer was visible on an x-ray. The patients underwent an operation, and were cured of this most lethal of cancers.
When the tumor cells are identified in the blood, specific medical imaging examinations are required to screen for the tumor, she explained. Based on your predispositions and your medical history, we begin for example with the breast in a woman and the prostate in a man, and scan the whole body if we do not find it. In the future it should be possible to identify the organ from which the tumor cells come and thereby save time. Proteins found in the cancer cells will indicate in which organ they originated.
It will also be possible to use this test for patients who are in remission in order to verify that the cancer has not returned, and allow oncologists to change and adapt treatments for diagnosed patients. The test has recently come onto the market, costs 486€ and is not reimbursed by social security. Even if it is not useful for everyone, and not widely available, it seems that this major discovery, if developed on a larger scale, will increase life expectancy in mankind. Worldwide, 15 million cases of cancer occur every year.
Here is a simplified version of the document : McNeil, Julian. “Complete heart block in a Caucasian woman with Behçet’s disease: a case report.” Journal of medical case reports 10.1 (2016): 1.
This case concerns a 48 year old Caucasian woman who was hospitalized for lightheadedness, muscular weakness, blurred vision, feeling faint, and feeling sick, with an abnormal heartbeat. Doctors carried out an electrocardiogram to visualize the heartbeat which showed that the electrical signals were not being correctly transmitted between the chambers of the heart. This explained the woman’s symptoms, and because it can be fatal doctors fitted a pacemaker and the symptoms disappeared. They then checked the the levels of a protein called troponin were normal and concluded that there was no damage to the heart muscle.
The woman subsequently suffered from frequent watery diarrhea, and said that she had regularly had painful ulcers on her mouth and genitals over the previous 10 months, and sometimes complained of swollen and tender joints, as well as a period of redness in her eyes that lasted two weeks. She had been to hospital 3 weeks earlier for chest pain due to an inflammation of the heart muscle, and tests showed a normal heartbeat with signs of fluid around the heart. She had a swollen right knee, and ulcers inside her mouth and on her vulva. She was a relatively heavy smoker, and when pregnant with her second child she had suffered from a blood clot in her right leg.
Doctors found no signs of bowel disease, or of skin injuries that were resistant to healing, and all tests for diseases where the body’s immune system attacks healthy cells were negative. They then tested for certain substances in the blood and the stools which might cause an immune reaction. An internal examination of the digestive system uncovered an ulcer in a part of the intestine often associated with another disease, but which was not consistent with that disease. Further tests showed inflammation of the blood vessels, but enabled doctors to eliminate the disease. Based on the woman’s ulcers, inflammation of the membranes in her joints, the ulcer in the digestive tract and her episode of inflamed eyes, doctors diagnosed a disorder named Behçet’s disease (BD). She was prescribed a drug called predisnalone to treat the inflammation, gradually decreasing the dose, and another called sulfasalzine to treat her diarrhea. Symptoms had disappeared at her follow-up appointments one and three months later.
Doctors made their diagnosis of BD on the basis of the woman’s symptoms after eliminating other possible causes. Although they did not find any long standing skin injuries, a symptom associated with BD, its absence is not enough to rule out the diagnosis. This case is interesting for a number of reasons. First of all, BD is more often found in men than in women, and secondly it occurs more frequently in regions along the Silk Road. Thirdly, despite the fact that heart problems are known to occur in BD, and that problems with electrical signals in the heart, known as heart block have already been recorded in BD patients from a non-Caucasian background, this is the first time heart block and BD have been reported in a Caucasian woman.
The fact that the levels of the protein called troponin, were normal, and that the heart muscle was in good condition led the doctors to eliminate other possible causes of heart block, and this was confirmed by the normal electrocardiogram when she was first in hospital. Therefore the doctors concluded that the heart problems were likely caused by Behçet’s disease. This led them to recommend that when BD is diagnosed, heart-related problems should be considered, even when the treatment for other aspects of the disease seems to be working, since heart block can be fatal.
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Thomeer, Marcus L., et al. “Randomized Controlled Trial of Mind Reading and In Vivo Rehearsal for High-Functioning Children with ASD.” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 45.7 (2015): 2115-2127.
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McAllister, Jan, Jacqueline Collier, and Lee Shepstone. “The impact of adolescent stuttering and other speech problems on psychological well‐being in adulthood: evidence from a birth cohort study.” International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders 48.4 (2013): 458-468.