l.georges online

work ‘n’ shit
November 25th, 2015 by admin

L2 SPS – Traduction 3

Doubt cast over the effectiveness of e-cigarettes for stopping smoking

A group of 16 American experts claims that there is no evidence that electronic cigarettes can be recommended as a way to quit smoking.

Tobacco kills half of those who smoke it, and accounts for almost 6 million deaths per year worldwide.  Anything goes when it comes to quitting: nicotine substitutes (patches, gum, tablets, inhalers), drugs, behavioral and cognitive thearapy, or even alternative medicine.  ”But what about e-cigarettes?” you might ask.  The 16 experts on the US Preventive Service Task Force, an American group working on prevention in public health, will tell you that there isn’t enough evidence to show that these devices are effective for stopping smoking.

American Guidelines

The experts came to this conclusion after analysing the results of over fifty studies about the effectiveness of the various methods for smoking cessation.  They published their synthesis a few days ago as a set of recommendations for health professionals.  In it the scientists stress the lack of proof concerning the effects of e-cigarettes and do not recommend their use.

“There are hundreds of studies on the subject, but only 3 are randomized, and therefore the most reliable.” explained Jean-François Etter, a professor of Public Health at the University of Geneva.  ”In a randomized study patients are randomly assigned to one of two identical groups, and in just one of them electronic cigarettes are used.  This allows us to prove causality between e-cigarette smoking and cessation.”

In their view, only two methods are effective for curing addiction to smoking.  The first is medication, using varenicline (commercially sold as Chantix or Champix), buproprion (an antidepressant called Zyban) or nicotine substitutes.  The second is cognitive and behavioral therapy, whch is recommended in particular for pregnant women as a way to avoid the possible side effects of medication on foetal development.

In France

The French tobacco addiction prevention service (Office français de prévention du tabagisme, or OFT) has noted that the commercial success of e-cigarettes coincides with a fall in cigarette sales (-7.6% at the end of 2013) and a reduction in the use of traditional methods of giving up.  In a statement published last year the OFT states that “e-cigarettes are a lot less harmful than traditional cigarettes” and that “replacing tobacco smoking with e-cigarettes can reduce health risks”.  Since 2014 the national health authority has also been recommending to doctors not to discourage the use of e-cigarettes for people who wish to give up smoking.

Despite the prudence of the authorities, the e-cigarette is viewed by many smokers as an alternative to tobacco.  A study of 15000 people carried out in 2014 by the national institute for health prevention and education showed that more than 80% of vapers said that e-cigarettes had enabled them to reduce their tobacco consumption, on average by 9 cigarettes each day.

November 20th, 2015 by admin

FASM2 – Red Bull Questions & Answers

Voici un pdf contenant des éléments de réponse.  N’hésitez pas à me signaler toute erreur éventuelle.

November 17th, 2015 by admin

FASM1 – Bright Light Therapy dossier type

Vous pouvez télécharger ici le dossier type pour l’article : Baxendale, Sallie, John O’Sullivan, and Dominic Heaney. “Bright light therapy for symptoms of anxiety and depression in focal epilepsy: randomised controlled trial.” The British Journal of Psychiatry 202.5 (2013): 352-356.

October 21st, 2015 by admin

L2 – Translation 2

Retinal Implants Bring Hope to the Blind

Retinal implants could allow the blind to partially recover their sight.  At the Vision Institute in Paris, two blind men explained how their artificial retinas work to health minister Marisol Touraine.

Suffering from pigmentary retinopathy, a hereditary disease causing progressive loss of vision, Jean, 72, and Claude, 60 wear a prosthetic device designed to partially restore their sight. Such medical progress could concern thousands of French people who suffer from the disease.

Since his retina operation two years ago, Jean still remembers the first time he wore his glasses. “It was phenomenal.  I hadn’t seen in 20 years, and suddenly there was all of this.  I said (to the doctors) “it was like fireworks”.  Those fireworks were the flashes that enabled him to see shapes, movement and contrast.

At the age of eighteen Jean was diagnosed with a congenital disease. “I was told ‘At the age of 50 or 60 you might become blind’.”  On public transport, he used to bump into people because they were not in his field of view, he told us.  At work, he went from one manual job to another, and admits to having hidden his problem for a long time, afraid he would be fired.  At 51 he lost his sight completely.  It was around the age of 18 that Claude, who lives in Avignon, started to have blurred vision. Glasses managed to correct what he thought was simply myopia, but now illness has caught up with him.

“When I was offered artificial retinas, I said yes right away” said Claude emphatically .  “It was a gift from above” added his son Julien.  “I hope to recover some of my vision, gain more independence and watch TV”, said this retired farmer whose brothers are also affected by pigmentary retinopathy.  Only five months after the surgery, it is however too early to perceive any possible changes.

Jean assures us he is able to go walking with his wife, often avoiding obstacles all by himself.  He has also succeeded in estimating a person’s height or even spotting a match on the table and grasping it. “It has changed my life a little,” he told us.

Artificial retinas from 50 to 60 pixels

To perceive visual information the patient wears a pair of goggles equipped with a miniature camera and a portable electronic device which relays the visual data to the eye implant. The latter, grafted to the retina transforms visual information into electrical stimulations which are sent to the brain, Serge Picaud, director of research at the Vision Institute, told us.  The patient can perceive at best 50 to 60 pixels in black, white or grey.  This will help him to have a better sense of direction but he won’t see colors, he explained.

To improve their vision, the patients are subjected to rehabilitation exercises: recognizing numbers, letters, or objects of different sizes, or shades of grey.  The aim is to stimulate memory because these prostheses are intended for people who were previously able to see.  The long term objective is to help patients become independent again, to be able to recognize faces, and then read complex texts,” explained Serge Picaud.

Currently, fewer than 10 people have a retinal implant in France, including Jean and Claude, for whom the intervention was fully reimbursed by social security.  Between 20000 and 40000 people suffer from pigmentary retinopathy in France.


October 19th, 2015 by admin


Voici la compil’ de vos travaux :

Abstract 1


L’infection par le virus de l’hépatite C (VHC), et peut être également celui de l’hépatite B (VHB), est liée à un risque accru de lymphome non-Hodgkinien (LNH) dans la population générale, mais on a peu d’informations sur le risque chez les porteurs de VIH.


Nous avons réalisé une étude cas-témoins imbriquée dans l’étude de cohorte suisse HIV à partir de 298 cas et 889 témoins appariés en fonction du centre d’étude, du sexe,  de la classe d’âge, du taux de CD4+ au début de l’étude, et de la durée de suivi.  Les Odds Ratios (OR) et leurs intervalles de confiance correspondants à 95% ont été calculés par régression logistique afin d’évaluer l’association entre le LNH et la séropositivité pour les anticorps du VHC et du VHB.


Les anticorps VHC ne sont pas associés à une augmentation du risque de LNH, indépendamment du nombre de CD4+, de l’âge et du sexe. Toutefois un taux plus élevé des anticorps VHC a été constaté chez les homosexuels masculins (HSH).  Aucune association entre le risque de LNH et la séropositivité a été mise en évidence.


La co-infection VIH-VHC ou VIH-VHB n’aumgente pas le risque de LNH comparé à la seule infection VIH.

Abstract 2


L’hépatite A aiguë est une pathologie dont les caractéristiques cliniques ne sont pas bien connues.  Nous avons analysé les données d’une épidémie récente en Corée afin de déterminer les caractéristiques et l’évolution de la maladie.


Les informations concernant les 4218 patients diagnostiqués avec une hépatite A aigue entre 2007 et 2009 ont été recueillies rétrospectivement dans 21 hôpitaux.  Leurs symptômes,  ainsi que leurs caractéristiques démographiques, cliniques et sérologiques ont été analysés.


La durée moyenne d’hospitalisation était de 9 jours, et le taux le plus élevé de ALT était de 2963 IV/L, la bilirubine totale de 7,3 mg/dL,  et l’INR de 1,3.  Les antigènes HBs étaient positifs dans 3,7% des cas, et les anticorps anti-HCV dans 0,7% des cas.  L’insuffisance rénale était constaté dans 2,7% des cas, et une défaillance hépatique pour 0,9% des patients.


La plupart des patients atteints d’hépatite A aiguë guérissent sans séquelles, mais chez les personnes âgés de plus de 30 ans le risque de complications est plus élevé.  Des actions préventives, comme la vaccination chez les enfants et l’immunisation de la population adulte doivent être envisagées.


Abstract 3


Au Bangladesh le virus de l’hépatite E est la principale cause de cas sporadiques d’hépatite par rapport au reste du monde et des pays voisins où les cas sont autant en rapport avec des épidémies qu’avec des cas isolés.  Nous étudions ici les facteurs de risque de l’hépatite E en milieu rural du sud du Bangladesh.


Nous avons conduit une surveillance mensuelle d’une population de 23500 personnes pour suivre les cas d’hépatite E au cours d’une période de 22 mois. A l’aide d’un algorithme 279 cas ont été identifiés dont 49 cas confirmés de VHE aiguë.  Une étude cas-témoin a été utilisée pour identifier les facteurs de risque potentiels.


Les personnes atteintes étaient à  majoritairement des hommes de plus de 15 ans.  Le contact avec les animaux et un statut socio-économique inférieur ne prédisposent pas à la contamination, à la différence du travail en extérieur et les voyages en milieu urbain. Le contact avec une personne atteinte de jaunisse ainsi que le fait d’avoir eu une injection étaient des facteurs de risque non-anticipés.


Cette étude a pu identifier les facteurs de risque les plus importants mais aussi éliminer des facteurs potentiels qui s’avèrent peu significatifs.


Abstract 4


Les porteurs de l’hépatite B ont un risque élevé d’être sur-infectés par le virus de l’hépatite D (VHD), entraînant l’insuffisance du foie.  Il est donc nécessaire de développer un vaccin qui protégerait de cette surinfection.


Une méthode expérimentale a été utilisée sur une population de souris et de marmottes.  Des réponses cellulaires T CD4+ et CD8+ spécifiques du VHD chez la souris ont été introduites par un vaccin ADN exprimant le protéine p27 du VHD.  Ensuite 7 marmottes naïves ont été immunisées avec une primo-injection d’ADN et un rappel adénoviral avant d’être exposées à une infection simultanée par le virus de l’hépatite de la marmotte et le VHD.


5 marmottes sur les 7 marmottes immunisées étaient protégées contre l’infection au VHD alors qu’une infection aiguë localisée par le virus de l’hépatite de la marmotte a été constatée.  Les deux marmottes présentaient une virémie VHD inférieure à celle des marmottes non vaccinées.


Les marmottes étaient protégées par primo-injection ADN et rappel adénoviral, et des études supplémentaires seront nécessaires pour valider  l’efficacité de ce protocole.


October 12th, 2015 by admin

Orthophonie UE7.4

Ci-dessous les diapos

PDF : Cours du 1er Octobre 2015
PDF : Cours du 8 0ctobre 2015

September 30th, 2015 by admin

L2 – translation N°1

Voici une proposition de corrigé :

Dark chocolate makes the brain more alert and attentive

A new study shows that eating dark chocolate with 60% cocoa content can stimulate the brain and improve alertness and attention span.

This is great news for chocolate lovers.  A new study published in NeuroRegulation shows that low-sugar dark chocolate can increase the brain’s attention span, and help people get over the afternoon slump.  The analysis, which was partly sponsored by (the) US chocolate company Hershey’s, is the first to examine the effect on the brain, but also the first to use an electroencephalogram to study cognitive ability after eating chocolate.

Larry Stevens, a professor of psychology at the University of Arizona wanted to find out whether people who ate chocolate experienced an immediate stimulant effect. Chocolate has always been recognized as a vasodilator: it dilates the blood vessels and lowers blood pressure in the long term.  But chocolate also contains powerful stimulants.

Useful for those with high blood pressure

In a series of tests, the scientist and his team analysed the brain activity of 122 volunteers aged 18 to 25, asking them to eat dark chocolate with a cocoa content of 60%. The EEG then took images of their brains.  Michelle Montipoli, who was still a student when the study was carried out, ran the EEG test phase which consisted in measuring the sample sizes based on the weight of the participants who were blinded to the study.

The results of the study showed that the brain of those who consume chocolate produced more signs of   vigilance and attention.  Their blood pressure also increased over a short period. “Chocolate is a stimulant and activates the brain in a special way” says Larry Stevens.  “It can increase brain characteristics of attention, and it also significantly affects blood pressure levels.”   When your vision becomes blurred, eat a piece of chocolate!

The advantages of theanine

The most important finding however, was that this chocolate with 60% cacao content contains theanine, an amino acid which is present in green tea, and which acts as a relaxant.  “Theanine is a really fascinating substance which lowers blood pressure and produces what we call alpha waves in the brain that are very calm and peaceful” explains Stevens. “We thought that if chocolate increases very high blood pressure, theanine lowers it, and so perhaps theanine would counteract the short-term hypertensive effects of chocolate.”

Stevens hopes that these results will encourage manufacturers to investigate further and to consider the health benefits of producing a bar of chocolate with high cacao and theanine content.  Millions of patients nationwide suffer from high blood pressure and eating chocolate bars every afternoon could be beneficial.  In this way, their blood pressure could fall to normal levels, and they would be more alert and attentive.





September 24th, 2015 by admin

FASM2 – Article 1

Voici le premier article en version pdf : Cardiovascular & cerebrovascular effects in response to Red Bull…