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October 19th, 2016 by admin

L2 – Traduction 2: suggestion de corrigé

A Blood Test to Detect Cancer

It is a revolutionary discovery.  French oncologist Patrizia Paterlini-Bréchot at the Necker Children’s University Teaching Hospital has developed a blood test which detects all cancers at an early stage.

French health minister Marisol Touraine regards this new test as the ‘promise of a major shift in cancer treatment because it is particularly simple to use, and therefore easy to implement on a larger scale’.

This technical feat, achieved by Patrizia Paterlini-Bréchot, a professor of cellular biology and oncologie at the Necker Children’s University Teaching Hospital (University of Paris-Descartes) consists in detecting the cancerous invasion at the very beginning of the disease. ‘Thanks to tests on animals, we knew that these (cancerous) cells are present in the blood for years before the appearance of metastases, and patients die because of these metastases, not because of the initial tumor.  Just as the AIDS virus does, these cells mutate, and because of this have time to become more and more resistant,’ said the researcher.

After seven years of research, a large box has been produced in which the tests called ISET (Isolation by Size of Tumor cells) can be carried out.  This test can detect the presence of these tumor cells which are larger than blood cells among the 5 billion red blood cells and 100 billion white blood cells in 10ml of blood.

The efficiency of the test has been proven by the results obtained at the university teaching hospital in Nice, where a cohort of at-risk patients (heavy smokers with pulmonary disease) was followed for 6 years.  Thanks to the test, researchers detected tumor cells in the blood of five patients well before the lung cancer was visible on an x-ray.  The patients underwent an operation, and were cured of this most lethal of cancers.

When the tumor cells are identified in the blood, specific medical imaging examinations are required to screen for the tumor, she explained. Based on your predispositions and your medical history, we begin for example with the breast in a woman and the prostate in a man, and scan the whole body if we do not find it.  In the future it should be possible to identify the organ from which the tumor cells come and thereby save time.  Proteins found in the cancer cells will indicate in which organ they originated.

It will also be possible to use this test for patients who are in remission in order to verify that the cancer has not returned, and allow oncologists to change and adapt treatments for diagnosed patients.  The test has recently come onto the market, costs 486€ and is not reimbursed by social security.  Even if it is not useful for everyone, and not widely available, it seems that this major discovery, if developed on a larger scale, will increase life expectancy in mankind.  Worldwide, 15 million cases of cancer occur every year.


October 14th, 2016 by admin

Case report – Simple English

Here is a simplified version of the document : McNeil, Julian. “Complete heart block in a Caucasian woman with Behçet’s disease: a case report.” Journal of medical case reports 10.1 (2016): 1.

This case concerns a 48 year old Caucasian woman who was hospitalized for lightheadedness, muscular weakness, blurred vision, feeling faint, and feeling sick, with an abnormal heartbeat. Doctors carried out an electrocardiogram to visualize the heartbeat which showed that the electrical signals were not being correctly transmitted between the chambers of the heart. This explained the woman’s symptoms, and because it can be fatal doctors fitted a pacemaker and the symptoms disappeared. They then checked the the levels of a protein called troponin were normal and concluded that there was no damage to the heart muscle.

The woman subsequently suffered from frequent watery diarrhea, and said that she had regularly had painful ulcers on her mouth and genitals over the previous 10 months, and sometimes complained of swollen and tender joints, as well as a period of redness in her eyes that lasted two weeks. She had been to hospital 3 weeks earlier for chest pain due to an inflammation of the heart muscle, and tests showed a normal heartbeat with signs of fluid around the heart. She had a swollen right knee, and ulcers inside her mouth and on her vulva. She was a relatively heavy smoker, and when pregnant with her second child she had suffered from a blood clot in her right leg.

Doctors found no signs of bowel disease, or of skin injuries that were resistant to healing, and all tests for diseases where the body’s immune system attacks healthy cells were negative. They then tested for certain substances in the blood and the stools which might cause an immune reaction. An internal examination of the digestive system uncovered an ulcer in a part of the intestine often associated with another disease, but which was not consistent with that disease. Further tests showed inflammation of the blood vessels, but enabled doctors to eliminate the disease. Based on the woman’s ulcers, inflammation of the membranes in her joints, the ulcer in the digestive tract and her episode of inflamed eyes, doctors diagnosed a disorder named Behçet’s disease (BD). She was prescribed a drug called predisnalone to treat the inflammation, gradually decreasing the dose, and another called sulfasalzine to treat her diarrhea. Symptoms had disappeared at her follow-up appointments one and three months later.

Doctors made their diagnosis of BD on the basis of the woman’s symptoms after eliminating other possible causes. Although they did not find any long standing skin injuries, a symptom associated with BD, its absence is not enough to rule out the diagnosis. This case is interesting for a number of reasons. First of all, BD is more often found in men than in women, and secondly it occurs more frequently in regions along the Silk Road. Thirdly, despite the fact that heart problems are known to occur in BD, and that problems with electrical signals in the heart, known as heart block have already been recorded in BD patients from a non-Caucasian background, this is the first time heart block and BD have been reported in a Caucasian woman.

The fact that the levels of the protein called troponin, were normal, and that the heart muscle was in good condition led the doctors to eliminate other possible causes of heart block, and this was confirmed by the normal electrocardiogram when she was first in hospital. Therefore the doctors concluded that the heart problems were likely caused by Behçet’s disease. This led them to recommend that when BD is diagnosed, heart-related problems should be considered, even when the treatment for other aspects of the disease seems to be working, since heart block can be fatal.

October 14th, 2016 by admin

Orthophonie UE7.4 Commentaire essai randomisé contrôlé

Ci-dessous le lien pour télécharger un commentaire pour l’article étudié en cours.

Thomeer, Marcus L., et al. “Randomized Controlled Trial of Mind Reading and In Vivo Rehearsal for High-Functioning Children with ASD.” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 45.7 (2015): 2115-2127.

N’hésitez pas à me faire part de vos commentaires et/ou suggestions de modifications.

October 13th, 2016 by admin

Orthophonie UE7.4 Commentaire étude de cohorte

Vous pouvez télécharger ci-dessous un commentaire concernant l’article

McAllister, Jan, Jacqueline Collier, and Lee Shepstone. “The impact of adolescent stuttering and other speech problems on psychological well‐being in adulthood: evidence from a birth cohort study.” International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders 48.4 (2013): 458-468.

October 6th, 2016 by admin

Orthophonie UE7.4 Commentaire étude cas-témoin

Morphological Features in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Matched Case-Control Study

October 3rd, 2016 by admin

FASM 2 – année 2016-2017

Cette année vous allez travailler par groupe de 2 à 6 personnes.

L’objectif est de rédiger un court article ensemble.  Nos procéderons en mode ‘atelier’ vous permettant defaire l’ensemble de la rédaction pendant les heures ED.

Vous pourrez choisir le type d’article en fonction de vos envies, et nous vous aiderons à élaborer un projet qui reste avant tout faisable et réaliste.

Il y a de nombreuses pistes possibles pour obtenir la matière première de votre travail.  Parmi ces possibilités on peut retenir:

  • Une revue d’autres études
  • Etudier les tendances dans les publications
  • Travailler à partir d’un banque de données (open data)
  • Partir d’un questionnaire
  • Concevoir une petite expérience
  • Faire une analyse chronologique ou comparative

Lors de la prochaine séance nous regarderons les différents outils qui pourront vous être utiles, et nous discuterons avec chaque groupe sur comment orienter et partager le travail de manière à ce que tout demeure faisable.  Comme pour n’importe quel cours on table sur une heure de travail personnel pour chaque heure ED.

Si vous souhaitez travailler avec des personnes d’un autre groupe il faut m’envoyer les noms et groupes avant le 31 octobre.  Nous procéderons ensuite à une petite réorganisation des groupes à partir de vos messages.
De même, si vous avez des questions sur vos éventuelles idées de projet, n’hésitez pas à nous envoyer un message.

September 30th, 2016 by admin

2008 Consensus Statement

Typical tasks identified from models

  1. establishing and building a relationship

  2. initiating (i.e. opening the consultation and setting the agenda)

  3. establishing, recognising and meeting patient needs

  4. gathering information

  5. eliciting and considering the patient’s world view

  6. conducting a physical examination

  7. formulating and explaining relevant diagnoses

  8. explaining, planning and negotiating

  9. structuring, signposting and prioritising

  10. closing (ending the interview and setting up the next meeting).

Important behavioural skills identified

  • eye contact

  • facial expression

  • attentive listening

  • screening (checking for other problems)

  • appropriate balance of open and closed questions;

  • faciliation (use of encouragement, silence etc.)

  • empathic reflection

  • responding to cues (both verbal and non-verbal)

  • summarising

  • signposting (indicating structure)

  • determining the patient’s starting point when giving information

  • chunking information

  • checking the patient’s understanding.



September 29th, 2016 by admin

FASM2 session 1 links

Research questions

Further information  on RQs

Bibliometrics tools

http://eigenfactor.org/projects.php (network analysis applied to citation reports)

https://www.journalmetrics.com/ (Elsevier tool)

http://www.harzing.com/resources/publish-or-perish (based on GS data)